As we saw in chapter 1, fibre optics has revolutionized the way the world is connected. It is the best method of quickly and efficiently transmitting data over long distances. But what exactly is an optical fibre made of? What properties make it unique?
An optical fibre is essentially a very narrow tunnel which guides light from a starting point to its destination. It does this by trapping the optical signal within its boundaries and pushing it from a transmitting end to a receiving end. Even if the fibre is bent, very little light is lost along the way.
The fibre itself consists of three layers: the core, the cladding, and the jacket (see Figure 1).